At the time, the island's territory consisted of five chiefdoms: InColumbus came back to the island on his second voyage and founded the first Spanish colony in the New World, the city of Isabella. An estimatedTainos living on the island were soon enslaved to work in gold mines.
The Rise of Monarchies: France, England, and Spain One of the most significant developments in the three centuries leading up to the Renaissance period was the collapse of feudalism.
This social and economic system had emerged during the ninth century in the Carolingian Empire pronounced care-eh-LIN-jee-ehnwhich was centered in the region that is now France. See "Feudalism" in Chapter 1. Eventually feudalism a term derived from the medieval Latin word feudum, meaning "fee" spread throughout Europe and served as a unifying institution for all aspects of life.
Under feudalism, which was based on an agricultural economy, distinct social classes were dependent on one another through a complex system of pledging loyalty in exchange for goods and services. At the top were kings, who owned the land. Beneath them were lords noblemen and clergymen church officialswho were granted tracts of land called fiefs pronounced feefs by the king.
Below the lords were vassals knightswho held smaller amounts of land awarded to them by lords. At the bottom were serfs peasantswho farmed the fiefs but were not given land of their own. Land occupied by churches, monasteries houses for men called monks, who dedicated themselves to the religious lifeand other religious establishments of the Roman Catholic Church were also considered fiefs.
Feudalism began to decline in the eleventh century with the rise of capitalism, an economy based on investing money and earning profits from business ventures. Capitalism is considered one of the major contributions of the Renaissance.
Under feudalism there were few cities, and most communities consisted of small towns and rural areas clustered around castles, which served as centers of government and social life see "Castle as center of community" in Chapter 1.
Capitalism brought about the rise of cities, which were built as hubs in a network of trade routes throughout Europe. The cities replaced fiefs as population centers. The growth of the new economy posed threats to the feudal system. Serfs started escaping to urban areas in search of work.
A middle class, consisting of merchants and bankers, was taking power away from noblemen. Although feudalism had been replaced by a new economic system, social and political structures were still based on the fief.
When the Renaissance began in the mid-fourteenth century in Italy, Europe was divided into hundreds of independent states, each with its own laws and customs. The result was absolute chaos, as leaders of states vied for more power and larger territories. In the south, the Italian peninsula was turned into a battleground.
Numerous wealthy city-states competed for trade rights around the Adriatic and Mediterranean Seas, and the Italian Wars a conflict between France and Spain for control in Italy raged for sixty-four years see " Italian Wars dominate Renaissance" in Chapter 2.
As the Renaissance moved north of Italy in the fifteenth century, northern and central Europe was even more fragmented.
The power of the Holy Roman Empire had dwindled, and princes noblemen who ruled states —particularly in the more than two hundred principalities of Germany—were seeking independence.
At the same time religious reformers, first in Germany and then in the Netherlands and Scandinavia, were leading a movement against the practices of the Roman Catholic Church.
Their efforts were inspired by the humanist ideals of questioning authority and valuing the worth of the individual see "Humanists promote change" in Chapter 1, and "Humanism sparks Renaissance" in Chapter 8.
This reform movement resulted in the revolution known as the Protestant Reformation, which eventually spread throughout Europe.France and Spain continued with large shipbuilding programs in the s, with the intention to renew the challenge against Britain in future contests in the Atlantic.
The other two Atlantic powers, Portugal and the Dutch Republic, preferred neutrality during most of the eighteenth century.
After decades of conflicts Spain finally ceded the western third of Hispaniola to France in the Treaty of Ryswick in , thus establishing the basis for the later national divisions between the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Apr 08, · In summary, France could not enter again in Italy but Spain didnÂ´t success when invading France national land.
In wars ended when Spain (with Dutch, English & German allies) invaded North France since Belgium (Spanish rule at the moment) and won the battles of Saint Quentin & Gravelines. This article reconstructs the expansion of Europe overseas and the multiple forms of encounters between European navigators, explorers, conquerors, colonizers, merchants and missionaries and "other" peoples and cultures over the course of four centuries.
Spain was as powerful as England in the s in order to re-assemble the relationship between Spain and England in the New World, the continent of America. The relationship that required the formation of in on the newly discovered continent was a relationship of England being a debt racketeering Empire depriving debtor European countries of.
Issued by Pope Alexander VI, A agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the .