Confucianism Confucius statue Confucianism is the main ancient philosophy of China. It implicitly embodies key aspects of Chinese culture.
Li also means religious rites which establish relations between humanity and the gods. According to Stephan Feuchtwang, rites are conceived as "what makes the invisible visible", making possible for humans to cultivate the underlying order of nature. Correctly performed rituals move society in alignment with earthly and heavenly astral forces, establishing the harmony of the three realms—Heaven, Earth and humanity.
Among all things of creation, humans themselves are "central" because they have the ability to cultivate and centre natural forces. Confucius includes in his discussions of li such diverse topics as learning, tea drinking, titles, mourning, and governance. Xunzi cites "songs and laughter, weeping and lamentation Confucius envisioned proper government being guided by the principles of li.
Some Confucians proposed that all human beings may pursue perfection by learning and practising li. Overall, Confucians believe that governments should place more emphasis on li and rely much less on penal punishment when they govern.
Confucius himself did not propose that "might makes right," but rather that a superior should be obeyed because of his moral rectitude. In addition, loyalty does not mean subservience to authority.
This is because reciprocity is demanded from the superior as well. As Confucius stated "a prince should employ his minister according to the rules of propriety; ministers should serve their prince with faithfulness loyalty. If the ruler is evil, then the people have the right to overthrow him.
Like filial piety, loyalty was often subverted by the autocratic regimes in China. Nonetheless, throughout the ages, many Confucians continued to fight against unrighteous superiors and rulers. Many of these Confucians suffered and sometimes died because of their conviction and action.
This may be true especially in times of social chaos, such as during the period of the Ming-Qing transition. Filial piety In Confucian philosophy, filial piety Chinese: Filial piety is considered a key virtue in Chinese cultureand it is the main concern of a large number of stories.
These stories depict how children exercised their filial piety in the past. While China has always had a diversity of religious beliefs, filial piety has been common to almost all of them; historian Hugh D. Baker calls respect for the family the only element common to almost all Chinese believers.
Reciprocity or responsibility renqing extends beyond filial piety and involves the entire network of social relations, even the respect for rulers. There is government, when the prince is prince, and the minister is minister; when the father is father, and the son is son.
Analects XII, 11, tr.The Four Books are short for The Texts and Annotations of the Four Books, which were compiled and annotated by Zhu Xi, a Neo-Confucian scholar of the Southern Song Dynasty to establish his own theoretical system of li or Principles. Confucianism, the way of life propagated by Confucius in the 6th–5th century bce and followed by the Chinese people for more than two millennia.
Although transformed over time, it is still the substance of learning, the source of values, and the social code of the Chinese. Confucius (or Kongzi) was a Chinese philosopher who lived in the 6th century BCE and whose thoughts, expressed in the philosophy of Confucianism, have influenced Chinese culture right up to the present Follow Us: Membership.
Encyclopedia. Index; these works constitute the Four Books of Confucianism otherwise referred to as the . Chinese philosophy: Chinese philosophy, the thought of Chinese culture, from earliest times to the present.
The keynote in Chinese philosophy is humanism: man and his society have occupied, if not monopolized, the attention of Chinese philosophers throughout the . Four Books: Analects; Doctrine of the Mean; Great Learning; Mencius; Five Classics: there is no term in Chinese which directly corresponds to "Confucianism".
In the Chinese language, This line of thought would have influenced all Chinese individual and collective-political mystical theories and practices thereafter. The Five Classics (wujing) and Four Books (si shu) collectively create the foundation of Confucianism.
The Five Classics and Four Books were the basis of the civil examination in imperial China and can be considered the Confucian canon.