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History Classical antiquity The earliest known indication of shorthand systems is from Ancient Greecenamely the Parthenon in which a stone from mid-4th century BC was found.
SMS Texting Dictionary: Text abbreviations, acronyms, texting symbols, emojis and emoticons. If you are into textual intercourse or social media you will need a comprehensive text dictionary. Get all the acronyms, text abbreviations, keystroke short-cuts and emoticons to keep your text messages, emails, tweets and status updates ahead of the rest. Superwrite abbreviations for measurements. This class of system is now common in all more recent German shorthand systems, as well as in Austria, Italy, Scandinavia, the Netherlands, Russia, other Eastern European countries, and elsewhere.4/5(81). Acronyms and Abbreviations. The Acronyms section of this website is powered by the Acronym Finder, the web's most comprehensive dictionary of acronyms, abbreviations and initialisms.. The Acronym Finder allows users to decipher acronyms from a database of over 1,, entries covering computers, technology, telecommunications, and the military.
The marble slab shows a writing system primarily based on vowels, using certain modifications to indicate consonants. Hellenistic tachygraphy is reported from the 2nd century BC onwards, though there are indications that it might be older.
The oldest datable reference is a contract from Middle Egyptstating that Oxyrhynchos gives the "semeiographer" Apollonios for two years to be taught shorthand writing. Hellenistic tachygraphy consisted of word stem signs and word ending signs.
Over time, many syllabic signs were developed. The Tironian notes consisted of Latin word stem abbreviations notae and of word ending abbreviations titulae. The original Tironian notes consisted of about signs but new signs were introduced so that their number might increase to as many as 13, In order to have a less complex writing system, a syllabic shorthand script was sometimes used.
After the decline of the Roman Empirethe Tironian notes were no longer used to transcribe speeches, though they were still known and taught, particularly during the Carolingian Renaissance. After the 11th century, however, they were mostly forgotten.
When many monastery libraries were secularized in the course of the 16th-century Protestant Reformationlong-forgotten manuscripts of Tironian notes were rediscovered. Imperial China See also: Cursive script East Asia In imperial Chinaclerks used an abbreviated, highly cursive form of Chinese characters to record court proceedings and criminal confessions.
These records were used to create more formal transcripts. One cornerstone of imperial court proceedings was that all confessions had to be acknowledged by the accused's signature, personal seal, or thumbprint, requiring fast writing.
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In Timothy Bright published his Characterie; An Arte of Shorte, Swifte and Secrete Writing by Character which introduced a system with arbitrary symbols each representing one word.
Bright's book was followed by a number of others, including John Willis's Art of Stenography inEdmond Willis 's An abbreviation of writing by character inand Thomas Shelton 's Short Writing in later re-issued as Tachygraphy.
Shelton's system became very popular and is well known because it was used by Samuel Pepys for his diary and for many of his official papers, such as his letter copy books.
It was also used by Sir Isaac Newton in some of his notebooks. Each consonant was represented by an arbitrary but simple symbol, while the five vowels were represented by the relative positions of the surrounding consonants.
Thus the symbol for B with symbol for T drawn directly above it represented "bat", while B with T below it meant "but"; top-right represented "e", middle-right "i", and lower-right "o". A vowel at the end of a word was represented by a dot in the appropriate position, while there were additional symbols for initial vowels.
This basic system was supplemented by further symbols representing common prefixes and suffixes. One drawback of Shelton's system was that there was no way to distinguish long and short vowels or diphthongs; so the b-a-t sequence could mean "bat", or "bait", or "bate", while b-o-t might mean "boot", or "bought", or "boat".
The reader needed to use the context to work out which alternative was meant. The main advantage of the system was that it was easy to learn and to use. It was popular, and under the two titles of Short Writing and Tachygraphy, Shelton's book ran to more than 20 editions between and Shelton's chief rivals were Theophilus Metcalfe 's Stenography or Short Writing which was in its "55th edition" byand Jeremiah Rich 's system ofwhich was published under various titles including The penns dexterity compleated Another notable English shorthand system creator of the 17th century was William Mason fl.
Tombstone of Heinrich Rollerinventor of a German shorthand system, with a sample of his shorthand Modern-looking geometric shorthand was introduced with John Byrom 's New Universal Shorthand of Samuel Taylor published a similar system inthe first English shorthand system to be used all over the English-speaking world.
Thomas Gurney published Brachygraphy in the midth century. Gabelsberger, who ignored the English stenography tradition, based his shorthand not on geometrical shapes but on the shapes used in handwriting script. Geometric theory has great influence in Japan.The following list includes all common acronyms and abbreviations that are used in the world of project management.
Terms are linked to definitions where available. Please let me know if you miss an abbreviation or an acronym! I will also extend this list from time to time. abbreviation برخی از واژگان اختصار و مخفف در زبان انگلیسی همچنین SUPERwrite نیز قابلیت دیگری است که مانند یک دستیار عمل می کند در واقع به محض تایپ چند حرف از کلمه مورد نظرتان کلمات مشابه آنرا در اختیار.
Acronyms and Abbreviations.
The Acronyms section of this website is powered by the Acronym Finder, the web's most comprehensive dictionary of acronyms, abbreviations and initialisms..
The Acronym Finder allows users to decipher acronyms from a database of over 1,, entries covering computers, technology, telecommunications, and the military. Abbreviations and Acronyms Abbreviations (the shortened form of a word or phrase) and acronyms (words formed from the initial letters of a phrase) are commonly used in technical writing.
In some fields, including chemistry, medicine, computer science, and geographic information systems, acronyms are used so frequently that the reader can feel. Conduct faster, easier research with eDictionaries on CD-ROM -- Open and search any number of dictionaries at once -- Internet link provides updates and additional entries -- Free on-line site for purchasing additional reference materials -- Each eDictionary also includes two bonus dictionaries: NTC's Dictionary of Acronyms and Abbreviations.
It’s not surprising that parents and others new to public schools often feel confused. This list of the more commonly used acronyms or abbreviations and their meanings has been developed to assist everyone in public schools communicate more effectively.
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