The "dark triad" of three personality traits:
Rape The terms rape, sexual assault and sexual violence are frequently used interchangeably. The perpetrator invaded the body of a person by conduct resulting in penetration, however slight, of any part of the body of the victim or of the perpetrator with a sexual organ, or of the anal or genital opening of the victim with any object or any other part of the body.
Among some armies, looting of civilian areas is considered a way for soldiers to supplement their often meager income, which can be unstable if soldiers are not paid on time.
Some militias that cannot afford to adequately pay their troops promote pillaging as a compensation for victory, and rape of civilians can be seen as a reward for winning battles. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak characterizes "group rape perpetrated by the conquerors" as "a metonymic celebration of territorial acquisition".
Some refugees and internally displaced people experience human trafficking for sexual or labour exploitation due to the breakdown of economies and policing in conflict regions.
In discussing gang rape as a means of bonding among soldiers, Cohen discusses the viewpoint of " combatant socialization ", in which military groups use gang rape as a socialization tactic during armed conflict.
By using gang rape during armed conflict, militia group members: Prompt feelings of power and achievement Establish status and a reputation for aggressiveness Create an enhanced feeling of masculinity through bonding and bragging Demonstrate dedication to the group and a willingness to take risks While war rape may not be an apparent tool or weapon of war, it does serve as a primary tool to create a cohesive military group.
The maleness of the military—the brute power of weaponry exclusive to their hands, the spiritual bonding of men at arms, the manly discipline of orders given and orders obeyed, the simple logic of the hierarchical command—confirms for men what they long suspect—that women are peripheral to the world that counts.
An estimated 45 million plus civilians died during World War II. Male and female civilians may be subject to torturebut many studies show that war rape is more frequently perpetrated on women than men.
Even when laws of war have recognized and forbidden sexual assault, few prosecutions have been brought.
According to Kelly Dawn Askin, the laws of war perpetuated the attitude that sexual assaults against women are less significant crimes, not worthy of prosecution. This gender-specific character has contributed to war rape being "narrowly portrayed as sexual or personal in nature, a portrayal that depoliticizes sexual abuse in conflict and results in its being ignored as a war crime.
He argues that war rape occurs in the context of stereotypes about women and men, which are part of the basic belief that violent power belongs to men, and that women are its victims.
Stemple concludes that the "lack of attention to sexual abuse of men during conflict is particularly troubling given the widespread reach of the problem". The lack of awareness for the magnitude of the rape of men during conflict relates to chronic underreporting.
Although the physical and psychological repercussions from rape are similar for women and men, male victims tend to demonstrate an even greater reluctance to report their suffering to their families or the authorities.
In the patriarchal societies found in many developing countries, gender roles are strictly defined. Is this still a husband? Is it a wife? Men are expected to exert violence, while women are victimized by it. Moreover, their stigmatization takes on particularly severe dimensions within conservative social environments in which homosexual intercourse — regardless of consent — is punished harshly.
For example, Ugandan male rape victims explain their choice to not speak out with the fear of being branded homosexuals. In certain cases, gender roles concerning violence and sexual conduct are so deeply ingrained that the mere existence of male rape is denied. Laws of war Prosecution of rapists in war crime tribunals is a recent development.
However, the lack of explicit recognition of war rape in international law or applicable humanitarian law may not be used as a defense by the perpetrator of war rape.
More recent humanitarian law concerns the maltreatment of civilians and "any devastation not justified by military necessity".
International humanitarian law One of the first references to the "laws of war", or "traditions of war" was by Cicerowho urged soldiers to observe the rules of war, since obeying the regulations separated the "men" from the "brutes".
Conquering the riches and property of an enemy was regarded as legitimate reason for war in itself. Women were included with "property", since they were considered under the lawful ownership of a man, whether a father, husband, slave master, or guardian.
In this context, the rape of a woman was considered a property crime committed against the man who owned the woman. In medieval Europe, women were considered as an inferior gender by law. According to FadlMedieval Islamic military jurisprudence laid down severe penalties for those who committed rape.
Salisbury believed that acts of theft and "rapine" property crimes should receive the most severe punishment, but also believed that obeying a superior's commands whether legal or illegal, moral or immoral, was the ultimate duty of the soldier.
The influential writer Francisco de Vitoria stood for a gradual emergence of the notion that glory or conquest were not necessarily acceptable reasons to start a war.Contemporary Mass Media Creating News and Culture Three Major Perspectives in Sociology.
Sociologists analyze social phenomena at different levels and from different perspectives. From concrete interpretations to A sociological approach in functionalism is the consideration of the relationship between the functions of smaller parts and.
Summary & Conclusion Indeed, this essay did not just concern itself only with relationship between media and crime, but it also discussed other vital sub-topics in Role of Mass Media In Relation To Crime and Deviance – Jan - 25 | P a g e the areas of media, crime and deviance as well as how the influence of media affect crime and deviance.
Hate crime or terrorism? Lone wolf or extremist? These words are often used to describe ideologically motivated violence, and as this empirical analysis reveals, their use by officers of the law and members of the media has impact on real cases.
A level sociology revision - education, families, research methods, crime and deviance and more! Review of Psychopathy. William D. Tillier; Calgary Alberta; Update: Under construction.
and before. Table of contents. 1). Synopsis of Psychopathy. Assess sociological views on the relationship between crime and the mass media (21 marks) Through the process of globalisation societies are now becoming increasingly more.