Whereas during the Old High German period the Germanic tribes extended only as far east as the Elbe and Saale rivers, the MHG period saw a number of these tribes expanding beyond this eastern boundary into Slavic territory this is known as the Ostsiedlung. Along with the increasing wealth and geographic extent of the Germanic groups came greater use of German in the courts of nobles as the standard language of official proceedings and literature. While these efforts were still regionally bound, German began to be used in place of Latin for certain official purposes, leading to a greater need for regularity in written conventions. While the major changes of the MHG period were socio-cultural, German was still undergoing significant linguistic changes in syntax, phonetics, and morphology as well e.
Language and the brain Many people assume the physical basis of language lies in the lips, the tongue, or the ear. But deaf and mute people can also possess language fully. People who have no capacity to use their vocal cords may still be able to comprehend language and use its written forms.
And human sign language, which is based on visible gesture rather than the creation of sound waves, is an infinitely creative system just like spoken forms of language.
But the basis of sign language is not in the hand, just as spoken language is not based in the lips or tongue. There are many examples of aphasics who lose both the ability to write as well as to express themselves using sign-language, yet they never lose manual dexterity in other tasks, such as sipping with a straw or tying their shoes.
Language is brain stuff--not tongue, lip, ear, or hand stuff. The language organ is the mind. More specifically, the language faculty seems to be located in certain areas of the left hemispheric cortex in most healthy adults. A special branch of linguistics, called neurolinguistics, studies the physical structure of the brain as it relates to language production and comprehension.
Structure of the human brain. The human brain displays a number of physiological and structural characteristics that must be understood before beginning a discussion of the brain as language organ.
First, the cerebrum, consisting of a cortex the outer layer and a subcortex, is also divided into two hemispheres joined by a membrane called the corpus callosum.
There are a few points which must be made about the functioning of these two cerebral hemispheres. This arrangement--called contralateral neural control is not limited to humans but is also present in all vertibrates--fish, frogs, lizards, birds and mammals.
On the other hand, in invertibrates such as worms, the right hemisphere controls the right side, the left hemisphere controls the left side. The contralateral arrangement of neural control thus might be due to an ancient evolutionary change which occurred in the earliest vertibrates over half a billion years ago.
Another crucial feature of brain physiology is that each hemisphere has somewhat unique functions unlike other paired organs such as the lungs, kidneys, breasts or testicles which have identical functions.
In other words, hemisphere function is asymmetrical.
This is most strikingly the case in humans, where the right hemisphere--in addition to controlling the left side of the body--also controls spatial acuity, while the left hemisphere--in addition to controlling the right side of the body-- controls abstract reasoning and physical tasks which require a step-by-step progression.
It is important to note that in adults, the left hemisphere also controls language; even in most left-handed patients, lateralization of language skills in the left hemisphere is completed by the age of puberty.
Now, why should specialized human skills such as language and abstract reasoning have developed in the left hemisphere instead of the right? Why didn't these skills develop equally in both hemispheres. The answer seems to combine the principle of functional economy with increased specialization.
In nature, specialization for particular tasks often leads to physical asymmetry of the body--witness the lobster's claws--where limbs or other of the body differentiate to perform a larger variety of tasks with greater sophistication the same might be said to have happened in human society with the rise of different trades and the division of labor.
Because of this specialization, one hemisphere--in most individuals for some reason it is the right hemisphere--came to control matters relating to 3D spatial acuity--the awareness of position in space in all directions simultaneously.
Thus, in modern humans, artistic ability tends to be centered in various areas of the right hemisphere. The left hemisphere, on the other hand, came to control patterns that progress step-by-step in a single dimension, such as our sense of time progression, or the logical steps required in performing feats of manual dexterity such as the process of fashioning a stone axe.
This connects with right-handedness. Most humans are born with a lopsided preference for performing skills of manual dexterity with the right hand--the hand controlled by the left hemisphere. The left hand holds an object in space while the right hand mainpulates that object to perform tasks which require a step-by-step progression.
Obviously, this is a better arrangement than if both hands were equally clumsy at performing complex, multi-step tasks, or if both sides of the brain were equally mediocre at thinking abstractly or at processing information about one's three-dimensional surroundings.
So human hemispheric asymmetry seems to have developed to serve very practical purposes. By the way, left-handedness seems to be the result of inheritance of two copies of a gene which does not impart strong right-hand preference.
At any rate, being left-handed doesn't seem to have any special effect on language acquistion or learning or on anything else innate to humans. This general pattern of cognitive asymmetry was probably well established in our hominid ancestors before the language faculty developed. So why did humans evolve in such a way that the language faculty normally localized in the left hemisphere?
Why not in the right? Clearly, the reason is that language, like fashioning a stone axe, is also a linear process: In the modern human, the feature of monolineal progression seems naturally to ally language with other left brain skills such as the ability to perform complex work tasks, or abstract step-by-step feats of logic, mathematics, or reasoning.
Even among natural left-handers in about Some of these are individuals who received damage to the left hemisphere in childhood which, presumably, prevented language from localizing there; however, we don't know why language localizes in the right hemisphere of the brain in about one in fifty healthy adults.
Like right or left handedness, it seems to correlate with nothing else in particular. How do we know that the left hemisphere controls language in most adults.Language and the brain Many people assume the physical basis of language lies in the lips, the tongue, or the ear.
But deaf and mute people can also possess language fully. Difference Between Merger and Acquisition ().
In the investment world, two of the most confused words are merger and acquisition. The two terms are usually used in place of each other regardless of how varied they are from each other.
LANGUAGE PLANNING: THEORY AND PRACTICE Evaluation of language planning cases worldwide evaluation has been limited to two countries per region, a large number of interesting cases have had to be we find terms such as am~nugement linguistique, gestion linguistique, planifcation lin-.
One of the major languages of the world, German is the first language of almost million people worldwide and the most widely spoken native language in the European Union. Together with French, German is the second most commonly spoken foreign language in the EU after English, making it the second biggest language in the EU in terms of overall speakers.
Quantitative data can be used to inform broader understandings of a population, or to consider how that population may change or progress into the future. For example, a simple income projection for an employee in may be inferred from the rate of change for data collected in , , and Linguistic Features of the Chinese Language Family The Chinese languages and their dialects are characterized linguistically as isolating, or analytic, in that word units do not change due to inflection.