Organizational structure[ edit ] In flat organizations, the number of people directly supervised by each manager is large, and the number of people in the chain of command above one is small.
An organisation is made up of individuals and the culture of an organization defines how things are done in an organisation and what behaviour and actions are considered as acceptable or not acceptable.
Hofstede defines culture as the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes members of one group or category of people from another 1. We will write a custom essay sample on Organizational culture or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not Waste HIRE WRITER Organisational culture is not that different from social culture where the code of conduct for society is laid down based on a deep founded value system and people who relate to such culture fit into that part of the society.
Handy classifies an organisations culture into 4 i. The power culture where a central figure defines the culture of the organisation, Role culture which is based on bureaucracy, task culture which lays emphasis on culture being derived from job orientation and finally the person culture which states that it is the individual who is the central focus of organisational culture 2.
Organisational culture recognises an organisation as a social system and thus where an organisation does not have a formal culture it cannot be interpreted that there is no organisational culture at all 3.
Culture is seen as largest controlling system as not only does it affect the overall organisational behaviour, but also the covert behaviour 4. The fact is that the organisational culture actually has a visible side and an invisible side.
The surface is made up of artefacts, languages, symbols which can be correlated to give an overview on what the organisation formally wants to disclose as its culture. The invisible side, on the other hand is based on basic values, deep beliefs, values and norms. Thus even where it looks like a group does not have any defined code of conduct, they are subconsciously following the culture derived from the invisible layer which has a pervasive influence over their behaviour and actions.
But finding a hierarchy for different elements that go into building an organisations culture is not a good way to interpret culture because for organisational culture there is no one element which supersedes the other. All the elements work together at the same time to give an organisation its cultural identity.
The cultural web presented by Jhonson, Scholes and Whittington 7 suggest how both physical indicators such as the organisation and power structures are as significant as the legends and stories of the organisation and its founders when it comes to defining the organisational paradigm.
Thus the culture of an organisation has an influence and to an extent acts as a driver for everyone who forms a part of an organisation whether it is at an individual level or a group level. Organisational cultural is in every sense just that, a culture. So not only does it act as an internal binding force which keeps the organisation together and in harmony, but it also defines how an individual should present himself and his organisation when he represents it.
For example Price Waterhouse Coopers takes pride in the ever increasing diversity of its workforce and works to instil the idea of flexible but diligent working. So whenever an employee comes in touch with a client these values will be automatically be reflected in his conduct and the outside world will reflect on the value system of the company based on its culture.
This is the point where the organisational culture comes in touch with the national culture. In fact the national culture is a very important factor in shaping the organisations culture along with other factors such as personality of the founder.
National cultural values are learned early, held deeply and change slowly over the course of generations.
Thus organisations belonging to the same country are based on a similar set of values and tend to have identical cultures except in cases of countries like India where huge regional cultural differences exist.
But the fact that organisational culture is deeply influenced by national culture does not make them the same thing. The research of Geert Hofstede has shown that cultural differences between nations are found on the deepest level; i. In comparison, cultural differences among organisations are especially identified on the level of practices.
Practices are more tangible than values. The other 3 layers can learned through training and practice and it is through these layers that an organisation develops its culture.Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory is a framework for cross-cultural communication, developed by Geert ashio-midori.com describes the effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis..
Hofstede developed his original model as a result of using factor analysis to examine the results of a worldwide. RACE, CULTURE, AND EQUALITY 1 by Thomas Sowell.
During the 15 years that I spent researching and writing my recently completed trilogy on racial and cultural issues, 2 I was struck again and again with how common huge disparities in income and wealth have been for centuries, in countries around the world-- and yet how each country regards its own particular disparities as unusual, if not unique.
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