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Japan and the Net Chapter Eight: Telematique and Messageries Rose: Grassroots Groupminds "This is like a groupmind! I might have startled him with my fervor, but he didn't disagree. The sensation of personally participating in an ongoing process of group problem-solving-- whether the problem is a tick on my daughter's head or an opportunity to help policymakers build a public network-- electrified me.
The feeling of tapping into this multibrained organism of collective expertise reminds me of the conversion experience the ARPA pioneers describe when they recall their first encounters with interactive computers.
The experience has to do with the way groups of people are using CMC to rediscover the power of cooperation, turning cooperation into a game, a way of life--a merger of knowledge capital, social capital, and communion. The fact that we need computer networks to recapture the sense of cooperative spirit that so many International relations chap 2 notes seemed to lose when we gained all this technology is a painful irony.
I'm not so sure myself anymore that tapping away on a keyboard and staring at a screen all day by necessity is "progress" compared to chopping logs and raising beans all day by necessity. While we've been gaining new technologies, we've been losing our sense of community, in many places in the world, and in most cases the technologies have precipitated that loss.
But this does not make an effective argument against the premise that people can use computers to cooperate in new ways. Computer-assisted teleconferencing continued to develop for as long as it did because it worked well for the people who developed it, the think-tank secret elite who spun nuclear war scenarios and the more mundane government bureaucracies who coordinate response to national emergencies.
Computer-assisted groupminds were confined to these elites for many years, while the state of computer and network technology caught up with the demands of CMC systems.
The computers were expensive, the software was strictly roll-your-own, and the tasks that the tools were used to accomplish were sensitive. Everything written about CMC in this paragraph was also true about computer technology itself thirty years ago.
In combination with a truly grassroots communications medium, however, such as Usenet's millions of reader-contributors and the computer bulletin-board systems that are springing up by the tens of thousands, the same many-to-many communications capabilities of CMC formerly reserved for the elites could catalyze the emergence of a formidable, far more populist kind of social organization.
Grassroots groupminds and their impact on the material world could grow into one of the surprise technological issues of the coming decade. Going back to the beginning of computer conferencing technology is essential if one is to understand where it ought to head in the future.
Once again, we find that the new technology took the form it did because the technology's inventors believed that the tools they created should belong to citizens to help us solve problems together.
There are other important parallels between the history of many-to-many communication tools and the history of other inspired inventions that made the Net possible. Like the other components of the Net, the facilities for structured group discussions evolved slowly until the convergence of key enabling technologies made explosive growth possible.
Like the rest of the Net, access to these tools was originally restricted to government and military planning and research elites, then expanded first to defense-related researchers, then opened to other scientists in non-defense-related fields, and then again expanded to nonscience scholars, and finally, now, the focus of debate is whether and how access can be expanded to include educators, students, and citizens.
One of the pioneers in CMC technology dating back to Engelbart's group at SRI, Jacques Valleein his prophetic book The Network Revolutionclaims that the first attempt to create a group communication medium was the Berlin crisis and airlift of An attempt was made to wire together telex machines from a dozen different countries, but with everybody trying to communicate at the same time in different languages, it didn't work out.
ByARPANET was online and new tools were available for accomplishing the same task of geographically distributed, asynchronous, group decision making. Like packet-switching, computer-mediated teleconferencing owes its birth, in part, to nuclear war planning. In the late s, Murray Turoff was working on war games and other kinds of computer simulations for the Institute for Defense Analysis.
Some of these games involved connecting several players at once via remote computing systems. As a result of this experience, Turoff started experimenting with computers as a way of mediating a special expert-consulting process developed at RAND, known as the Delphi method.
Delphi was a formal method of soliciting anonymous ideas and critiques of those ideas from panels of experts--a combination of brainstorming and opinion polling. It was done by passing a lot of pieces of paper around in a specified order. Turoff started to computerize Delphi and ended up realizing that there were much wider horizons to the business of convening panels of experts to pass messages around via computer.
In the early s, Turoff moved to the U.
Office of Emergency Preparedness, where his job wasn't related to his continuing interest in teleconferencing via computer. His superiors found out that he was using his computer terminal to experiment with an unauthorized conference system, and there was some bureaucratic friction.INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, PRINCIPAL THEORIES are decisive.
In this view international relations is essentially a story of Great Power politics.
5 Realists also diverge on some issues. So-called offensive Realists maintain that, in order. 1. The notes in the following chapters are meant as lecture notes for the second term of an introductory course in International Relations at the university level. The experience has to do with the way groups of people are using CMC to rediscover the power of cooperation, turning cooperation into a game, a way of life--a .
from The Genesis Record, Henry Morris. Genesis , 2. Moral and spiritual conditions in the antediluvian world had deteriorated with the passing years, not only among the Cainites but eventually among the Sethites as well. Essentials of international relations Chap.
1 notes How does “international relations” affect you in your daily life? o Inside my closet are clothes made in Asia, South America, some from Europe. In my kitchen cupboards and in the fridge are meats, fruits, vegetables, Tupperware, bags, and many other materials made mostly in Mexico, and the Philippines%(1).
Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.