Historical approaches[ edit ] Although the word "acculturation" was coined by J. Powell in the earliest record of acculturation can be found in Sumerian inscriptions from B.
Historical approaches[ edit ] Although the word "acculturation" was coined by J. Powell in the earliest record of acculturation can be found in Sumerian inscriptions from B. These inscriptions laid out rules for commerce and interaction with foreigners designed to limit acculturation and protect traditional cultural practices.
Accordingly, he proposed that no one should travel abroad until they are at least 40 years of age, and that travellers should be restricted to the ports of cities to minimize contact with native citizens. One of the most notable forms of acculturation is imperialismthe most common predecessor of direct cultural change.
Although these cultural changes may seem simple, the combined results are both robust and complex, impacting both groups and individuals from the original culture and the host culture. The first psychological theory of acculturation was proposed in W. From studying Polish immigrants in Chicago, they illustrated three forms of acculturation corresponding to three personality types: Bohemian adopting the host culture and abandoning their culture of originPhilistine failing to adopt the host culture but preserving their culture of originand creative-type able to adapt to the host culture while preserving their culture of origin.
Those phenomena which result when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact, with subsequent changes in the original cultural patterns of either or both groups InMilton Gordon 's book Assimilation in American Life outlined seven stages of the assimilative process, setting the stage for literature on this topic.
Later, Young Yun Kim authored a reiteration of Gordon's work, but argued cross-cultural adaptation as a multi-staged process. Kim's theory focused on the unitary nature of psychological and social processes and the reciprocal functional personal environment interdependence.
In Kim's approach, assimilation is unilinear and the sojourner must conform to the majority group culture in order to be "communicatively competent.
Thus, the term adaptation is used by Gudykunst and Kim to mean conformity to the coercive power pp. According to this definition, any attempt to maintain one's original values, beliefs, ways of thinking, feelings, or behaviors constitutes mental illness or "maladaptation" p.
This is further emphasized by Gudykunst and Kimstating that the way of "upward-forward" evolution toward functional fitness and psychological health is for the newcomer to willfully "unlearn" and "deculturize" themselves p.
Gudykunst and Kim proposed both psychotherapy and abandonment of all ethnic relations and associations with ethnic ties to help immigrants achieve "integrative" conformity Again, this is not integration but rather dissolution of the newcomer's original identity.
According to Gudykunst and Kimincreased disintegration is preferred, even if it leads to extreme distress for the immigrant. Ironically, Gudykunst and Kim seemed to identify the concept of acculturative stress stating "even extreme mental illness [caused by "conformity pressure" p.
No matter how unjust or cruel, Gudykunst and Kim argue that the host's way of thinking, feeling, and behaving constitutes the "higher level" of psychic evolution and any resistance to conform indicates that the immigrant is communicatively incompetent, immature, mentally ill pp.
Evolutionary progress for the individual requires the individual to "abandon identification with the cultural patterns that have constituted who one is and what one is" p. In contradistinction from Gudykunst and Kim's version of adaptive evolution, Eric M.
Kramer developed his theory of Cultural Fusion a,  a,   a,    maintaining clear, conceptual distinctions between assimilation, adaptation, and integration.
According to Kramer, assimilation involves conformity to a pre-existing form. Kramer's a, b, c, theory of Cultural Fusion, which is based on systems theory and hermeneuticsargues that it is impossible for a person to unlearn themselves and that by definition, "growth" is not a zero sum process that requires the disillusion of one form for another to come into being but rather a process of learning new languages and cultural repertoires ways of thinking, cooking, playing, working worshiping, and so forth.
In other words, Kramer argues that one need not unlearn a language in order to learn a new one, nor does one have to unlearn who one is in order to learn new ways of dancing, cooking, talking and so forth.
Unlike Gudykunst and KimKramer argues that this blending of language and culture results in cognitive complexity, or the ability to switch between cultural repertoires. To put Kramer's ideas simply, learning is growth rather than unlearning. Kramer[ edit ] Although numerous models of acculturation exist, the most complete models take into consideration the changes occurring at the group and individual levels of both interacting groups.
Two fundamental premises in Kramer's DAD theory are the concepts of hermeneutics and semiotics, which infer that identity, meaning, communication, and learning all depend on differences or variance.
According to this view, total assimilation would result in a monoculture void of personal identity, meaning, and communication.
Kramer's theory identifies three communication styles idolic, symbolic, or signalic in order to explain cultural differences. It is important to note that in this theory, no single mode of communication is inherently superior, and no final solution to intercultural conflict is suggested.
Instead, Kramer puts forth three integrated theories: Idolic reality involves strong emotional identification, where a holy relic does not simply symbolize the sacred, it is sacred.
By contrast, a Christian crucifix follows a symbolic nature, where it represents a symbol of God. Lastly, the signalic modality is far less emotional and increasingly dissociated.William H.
McNeill On Samuel P. Huntington.
Back in January historian William Hardy McNeill wrote a review for the New York Review of Books of Samuel P. Huntington's book The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order and made some great points worth pondering today..
It is easy to mock such self-righteousness, and Huntington's rejection of the moral imperialism implicit in. The ever expanding markets for goods and their unchallenged assault through advertisements are flooding the society with information and ideas, attitudes and imagery which is .
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Since as early as the dawn of medieval times, Kayasthas have occupied . Kayastha (also referred to as Kayasth or Kayeth) is a group consisting of a cluster of several different castes (or sub-groups) of different origin from the Indian ashio-midori.comhas have traditionally acted as scribes, keepers of public records and accounts, and administrators of the state.
Since as early as the dawn of Medieval India, Kayasthas have occupied the highest government. Race - Hereditarian ideology and European constructions of race: Inheritance as the basis of individual social position is an ancient tenet of human history, extending to some point after the beginnings of agriculture (about 10, bce).
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